Mohammad Abdus Salam NI(M) SPk (/sæˈlæm/; pronounced [əbd̪ʊs səlaːm]; 29 January 1926 – 21 November 1996), was a Pakistani theoretical physicist. He shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for his contribution to the electroweak unification theory. He was the first Pakistani and the first from an Islamic country to receive a Nobel Prize in science and the second from an Islamic country to receive any Nobel Prize, after Anwar Sadat of Egypt.

Mohammad Abdus Salam NI(M) SPk (/sæˈlæm/; pronounced [əbd̪ʊs səlaːm]; 29 January 1926 – 21 November 1996), was a Pakistani literary physicist. He shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics past Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for his contribution to the electroweak unification theory. He was the first Pakistani and the first from an Islamic country to get a Nobel Prize in science and the second from an Islamic country to receive any Nobel Prize, after Anwar Sadat of Egypt.

Salam was scientific advisor to the Ministry of Science and Technology in Pakistan from 1960 to 1974, a point of view from which played a major and influential role in the build up of the country’s science infrastructure. Salam contributed to numerous developments in instructor and particle physics in Pakistan. He was the founding director of the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), and answerable for the commencement of the Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) in the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). As Science Advisor, Salam played a role in Pakistan’s enhancement of nuclear energy, and contributed as well, via Project-706, to the expand of Pakistan’s atomic bomb project in 1972; for this, he is viewed as the “scientific father” of this program. In 1974, Abdus Salam departed from his country, in protest, after the Parliament of Pakistan passed unanimously a parliamentary bank account declaring members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim community, to which Salam belonged, non-Muslims. In 1998, following the country’s Chagai-I nuclear tests, the Government of Pakistan issued a commemorative stamp, as a allocation of “Scientists of Pakistan”, to honour the services of Salam.

Salam’s notable achievements improve the Pati–Salam model, magnetic photon, vector meson, Grand Unified Theory, work on supersymmetry and, most importantly, electroweak theory, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize. Salam made a major contribution in quantum ring theory and in the advancement of Mathematics at Imperial College London. With his student, Riazuddin, Salam made important contributions to the enlightened theory upon neutrinos, neutron stars and black holes, as skillfully as the work upon modernising quantum mechanics and quantum ring theory. As a hypothetical and science promoter, Salam is remembered as a founder and scientific daddy of mathematical and university physics in Pakistan during his term as the chief scientific advisor to the president. Salam heavily contributed to the rise of Pakistani physics within the global physics community. Up until brusquely before his death, Salam continued to contribute to physics, and to protester for the take forward of science in third-world countries.

Abdus Salam was born to Chaudhry Muhammad Hussain and Hajira Hussain, into a Punjabi Muslim family that was part of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam. His grandfather, Gul Muhammad, was a religious scholar as competently as a physician, while his daddy was an education superintendent in the Department of Education of Punjab State in a poor farming district.

Salam completely early normal a reputation throughout Punjab and well ahead at the University of Cambridge for outstanding brilliance and academic achievement. At age 14, Salam scored the highest marks ever recorded for the matriculation (entrance) examination at the Punjab University. He won a full scholarship to the Government College University of Lahore, Punjab State. Salam was a versatile scholar, interested in Urdu and English literature in which he excelled. After a month in Lahore, he went to Bombay to Study. In 1947, he came put in the works to to Lahore. But he soon picked occurring Mathematics as his concentration. Salam’s mentor and tutors wanted him to become an English teacher, but Salam granted to stick with Mathematics As a fourth-year student there, he published his work upon Srinivasa Ramanujan’s problems in mathematics, and took his B.A. in Mathematics in 1944. His dad wanted him to associate the Indian Civil Service (ICS). In those days, the ICS was the highest take aim for young academe graduates and civil servants occupied a established place in civil society. Respecting his father’s wish, Salam tried for the Indian Railways but did not qualify for the give support to as he failed the medical optical tests. The results new concluded that Salam fruitless a mechanical exam required by railway engineers to get a commission in the Railways, and that he was too youngster to compete for the job. Therefore, the Railways rejected Salam’s job application. While in Lahore, Salam went upon to attend the graduate intellectual of Government College University. He normal his MA in Mathematics from the Government College University in 1946. That thesame year, he was awarded a scholarship to St John’s College, Cambridge, where he completed a BA degree with Double First-Class Honours in Mathematics and Physics in 1949. In 1950, he expected the Smith’s Prize from Cambridge University for the most outstanding pre-doctoral contribution to Physics. After achievement his degrees, Fred Hoyle advised Salam to spend different year in the Cavendish Laboratory to attain research in experimental physics, but Salam had no patience for execution long experiments in the laboratory. Salam returned to Jhang and renewed his scholarship and returned to the United Kingdom to get his doctorate.

He obtained a PhD degree in hypothetical physics from the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge. His doctoral thesis titled “Developments in quantum theory of fields” contained total and fundamental produce an effect in quantum electrodynamics. By the become old it was published in 1951, it had already gained him an international reputation and the Adams Prize.

During his doctoral studies, his mentors challenged him to solve within one year an intractable misery which had defied such great minds as Paul Dirac and Richard Feynman. Within six months, Salam had found a solution for the renormalization of meson theory. As he proposed the solution at the Cavendish Laboratory, Salam had attracted the attention of Hans Bethe, J. Robert Oppenheimer and Dirac.

After receiving his doctorate in 1951, Salam returned to Lahore at the Government College University as a Professor of Mathematics where he remained till 1954. In 1952, he was appointed professor and Chair of the Department of Mathematics at the neighbouring University of the Punjab. In the latter capacity, Salam sought to update the the academy curriculum, introducing a course in Quantum mechanics as a part of the undergraduate curriculum. However, this initiative was soon reverted by the Vice-Chancellor, and Salam established to tutor an evening course in Quantum Mechanics uncovered the regular curriculum. While Salam enjoyed a contaminated popularity in the university, he began to supervise the education of students who were particularly influenced by him. As a result, Riazuddin remained the lonesome student of Salam who had the privilege to study under Salam at the undergraduate and post-graduate level in Lahore, and post-doctoral level in Cambridge University. In 1953, Salam was unable to announce a research institute in Lahore, as he faced strong opposition from his peers. In 1954, Salam took fellowship and became one of the out of date fellows of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences. As a upshot of 1953 Lahore riots, Salam went help to Cambridge and joined St John’s College, and took a position as a professor of mathematics in 1954. In 1957, he was invited to take a chair at Imperial College, London, and he and Paul Matthews went upon to set going on the Theoretical Physics Department at Imperial College. As time passed, this department became one of the prestigious research departments that included without difficulty known physicists such as Steven Weinberg, Tom Kibble, Gerald Guralnik, C. R. Hagen, Riazuddin, and John Ward.

In 1957, Punjab University conferred Salam later an Honorary doctorate for his contribution in Particle physics. The same year with support from his mentor, Salam launched a scholarship programme for his students in Pakistan. Salam retained mighty links when Pakistan, and visited his country from time to time. At Cambridge and Imperial College he formed a work of assistant professor physicists, the majority of whom were his Pakistani students. At age 33, Salam became one of the youngest persons to be elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1959. Salam took a fellowship at the Princeton University in 1959, where he met bearing in mind J. Robert Oppenheimer and to whom he presented his research work upon neutrinos. Oppenheimer and Salam discussed the start of electrodynamics, problems and their solution. His dedicated personal accomplice was Jean Bouckley. In 1980, Salam became a foreign fellow of the Bangladesh Academy of Sciences.

Early in his career, Salam made an important and significant contribution in quantum electrodynamics and quantum pitch theory, including its further details into particle and nuclear physics. In his early career in Pakistan, Salam was greatly keen in mathematical series and their credit to physics. Salam had played an influential role in the advancement of nuclear physics, but he maintained and dedicated himself to mathematics and researcher physics and focused Pakistan to do more research in university physics. However, he regarded nuclear physics (nuclear fission and nuclear power) as a non-pioneering allocation of physics as it had already “happened”. Even in Pakistan, Salam was the leading driving force in teacher physics in Pakistan, with many scientists he continued to shape and urge on to save their work on theoretical physics.

Salam had a prolific research career in assistant professor and high-energy physics. Salam had worked on theory of the neutrino – an elusive particle that was first postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the 1930s. Salam introduced chiral symmetry in the theory of neutrinos. The launch of chiral symmetry played crucial role in subsequent forward movement of the theory of electroweak interactions. Salam higher passed his play to Riazuddin, who made pioneering contributions in neutrinos. Salam introduced the terrible Higgs bosons to the theory of the Standard Model, where he forward-thinking predicted the existence of proton decay. In 1963, Salam published his assistant professor work on the vector meson. The paper introduced the associations of vector meson, photon (vector electrodynamics), and the renormalisation of vector mesons’ known addition after the interaction. In 1961, Salam began to doing with John Clive Ward on symmetries and electroweak unification. In 1964, Salam and Ward worked upon a Gauge theory for the feeble and electromagnetic interaction, subsequently obtaining SU(2) × U(1) model. Salam was convinced that all the elementary particle interactions are actually the gauge interactions. In 1968, together in imitation of Weinberg and Sheldon Glashow, Salam formulated the mathematical concept of their work. While in Imperial College, Salam, along with Glashow and Jeffrey Goldstone, mathematically proved the Goldstone’s theorem, that a massless spin-zero seek must measure a theory suitably of spontaneous breaking of a continuous global symmetry. In 1967-8, Salam and Weinberg incorporated the Higgs mechanism into Glashow’s discovery, giving it a innovative form in electroweak theory, and correspondingly theorised half of the Standard Model. In 1968, together afterward Weinberg and Sheldon Glashow, Salam finally formulated the mathematical concept of their work.

In 1966, Salam carried out pioneering work upon a school particle. Salam showed the realistic electromagnetic relationships between the Magnetic monopole and the C-violation, thus he formulated the magnetic photon.

Following the broadcast of PRL Symmetry Breaking papers in 1964, Steven Weinberg and Salam were the first to apply the Higgs mechanism to electroweak symmetry breaking. Salam provided a mathematical postulation for the interaction between the Higgs boson and the electroweak symmetry theory.

In 1972, Salam began to perform with Indian-American researcher physicist Jogesh Pati. Pati wrote to Salam several time expressing immersion to work under Salam’s direction, in salutation to which Salam eventually invited Pati to the ICTP seminar in Pakistan. Salam suggested to Pati that there should be some deep reason why the protons and electrons are correspondingly different and nevertheless carry equal but opposite electric charge. Protons carry quarks, but the electroweak theory was concerned only subsequent to the electrons and neutrinos, with nothing postulated about quarks. If all of nature’s ingredients could be brought together in one other symmetry, it might tone a excuse for the various features of these particles and the forces they feel. This led to the go ahead of Pati–Salam model in particle physics. In 1973, Salam and Jogesh Pati were the first to notice that previously Quarks and Leptons have very similar SU(2) × U(1) representation content, they all may have thesame entities. They provided a simple realisation of the quark-lepton symmetry by postulating that lepton number was a fourth colour, dubbed “violet”.

Physicists had believed that there were four fundamental forces of nature: the gravitational force, the strong and feeble nuclear forces, and the electromagnetic force. Salam had worked on the unification of these forces from 1959 taking into consideration Glashow and Weinberg. While at Imperial College London, Salam successfully showed that feeble nuclear forces are not really different from electromagnetic forces, and two could inter-convert. Salam provided a theory that shows the unification of two fundamental forces of nature, weak nuclear forces and the electromagnetic forces, one into another. Glashow had afterward formulated the thesame work, and the theory was comprehensive in 1966. In 1967, Salam proved the electroweak unification theory mathematically, and finally published the papers. For this achievement, Salam, Glashow, and Weinberg were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979. The Nobel Prize Foundation paid award to the scientists and issued a support saying: “For their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the feeble neutral current”. In the 1970s Salam continued a pain to unify forces by including the strong interaction in a grand unified theory.