Mohammad Abdus Salam NI(M) SPk (; pronounced [əbd̪ʊs səlaːm]; 29 January 1926 – 21 November 1996), was a Pakistani theoretical physicist. He shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for his contribution to the electroweak unification theory. He was the first Pakistani and the first from an Islamic country to receive a Nobel Prize in science and the second from an Islamic country to receive any Nobel Prize, after Anwar Sadat of Egypt.
Mohammad Abdus Salam NI(M) SPk (; pronounced [əbd̪ʊs səlaːm]; 29 January 1926 – 21 November 1996), was a Pakistani theoretical physicist. He shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics following Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for his contribution to the electroweak unification theory. He was the first Pakistani and the first from an Islamic country to get a Nobel Prize in science and the second from an Islamic country to get any Nobel Prize, after Anwar Sadat of Egypt.
Salam was scientific advisor to the Ministry of Science and Technology in Pakistan from 1960 to 1974, a point from which played a major and influential role in the move on of the country’s science infrastructure. Salam contributed to numerous developments in learned and particle physics in Pakistan. He was the founding director of the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), and blamed for the foundation of the Theoretical Physics Group (TPG). for this, he is viewed as the “scientific father” of this program. In 1974, Abdus Salam departed from his country, in protest, after the Parliament of Pakistan passed unanimously a parliamentary savings account declaring members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim community, to which Salam belonged, non-Muslims. In 1998, following the country’s Chagai-I nuclear tests, the Government of Pakistan issued a commemorative stamp, as a portion of “Scientists of Pakistan”, to honour the services of Salam.
Salam’s notable achievements count up the Pati–Salam model, magnetic photon, vector meson, Grand Unified Theory, work upon supersymmetry and, most importantly, electroweak theory, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize. Salam made a major contribution in quantum arena theory and in the advancement of Mathematics at Imperial College London. With his student, Riazuddin, Salam made important contributions to the protester theory upon neutrinos, neutron stars and black holes, as without difficulty as the work upon modernising quantum mechanics and quantum ground theory. As a instructor and science promoter, Salam is remembered as a founder and scientific dad of mathematical and moot physics in Pakistan during his term as the chief scientific advisor to the president. Salam heavily contributed to the rise of Pakistani physics within the global physics community. Up until unexpectedly before his death, Salam continued to contribute to physics, and to modern for the loan of science in third-world countries.
Abdus Salam was born to Chaudhry Muhammad Hussain and Hajira Hussain, into a Punjabi Muslim associates that was ration of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam. His grandfather, Gul Muhammad, was a religious scholar as well as a physician, while his daddy was an education supervisor in the Department of Education of Punjab State in a destitute farming district.
Salam totally early acknowledged a reputation throughout Punjab and vanguard at the University of Cambridge for outstanding brilliance and academic achievement. At age 14, Salam scored the highest marks ever recorded for the matriculation (entrance) examination at the Punjab University. He won a full scholarship to the Government College University of Lahore, Punjab State. Salam was a versatile scholar, interested in Urdu and English literature in which he excelled. After a month in Lahore, he went to Bombay to Study. In 1947, he came back to Lahore. But he soon picked in the works Mathematics as his concentration. Salam’s mentor and tutors wanted him to become an English teacher, but Salam granted to stick with Mathematics As a fourth-year student there, he published his work upon Srinivasa Ramanujan’s problems in mathematics, and took his B.A. in Mathematics in 1944. His father wanted him to colleague the Indian Civil Service (ICS). In those days, the ICS was the highest ambition for young college circles graduates and civil servants occupied a recognized place in civil society. Respecting his father’s wish, Salam tried for the Indian Railways but did not qualify for the bolster as he bungled the medical optical tests. The results extra concluded that Salam futile a mechanical test required by railway engineers to get a commission in the Railways, and that he was too teenage to compete for the job. Therefore, the Railways rejected Salam’s job application. While in Lahore, Salam went on to attend the graduate hypothetical of Government College University. He usual his MA in Mathematics from the Government College University in 1946. That thesame year, he was awarded a scholarship to St John’s College, Cambridge, where he completed a BA degree behind Double First-Class Honours in Mathematics and Physics in 1949. In 1950, he received the Smith’s Prize from Cambridge University for the most outstanding pre-doctoral contribution to Physics. After carrying out his degrees, Fred Hoyle advised Salam to spend another year in the Cavendish Laboratory to realize research in experimental physics, but Salam had no patience for achievement long experiments in the laboratory. Salam returned to Jhang and renewed his scholarship and returned to the United Kingdom to complete his doctorate.
He obtained a PhD degree in theoretical physics from the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge. His doctoral thesis titled “Developments in quantum theory of fields” contained amassed and fundamental accomplish in quantum electrodynamics. By the grow old it was published in 1951, it had already gained him an international reputation and the Adams Prize.
During his doctoral studies, his mentors challenged him to solve within one year an intractable misery which had defied such good minds as Paul Dirac and Richard Feynman. Within six months, Salam had found a answer for the renormalization of meson theory. As he proposed the answer at the Cavendish Laboratory, Salam had attracted the attention of Hans Bethe, J. Robert Oppenheimer and Dirac.
After receiving his doctorate in 1951, Salam returned to Lahore at the Government College University as a Professor of Mathematics where he remained till 1954. In 1952, he was appointed professor and Chair of the Department of Mathematics at the neighbouring University of the Punjab. In the latter capacity, Salam sought to update the university circles curriculum, introducing a course in Quantum mechanics as a portion of the undergraduate curriculum. However, this initiative was soon reverted by the Vice-Chancellor, and Salam established to teach an evening course in Quantum Mechanics outside the regular curriculum. While Salam enjoyed a impure popularity in the university, he began to supervise the education of students who were particularly influenced by him. As a result, Riazuddin remained the unaccompanied student of Salam who had the privilege to study below Salam at the undergraduate and post-graduate level in Lahore, and post-doctoral level in Cambridge University. In 1953, Salam was unable to assert a research institute in Lahore, as he faced strong opposition from his peers. In 1954, Salam took fellowship and became one of the archaic fellows of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences. As a consequences of 1953 Lahore riots, Salam went encourage to Cambridge and associated St John’s College, and took a point of view as a professor of mathematics in 1954. In 1957, he was invited to accept a seat at Imperial College, London, and he and Paul Matthews went on to set up the Theoretical Physics Department at Imperial College. As times passed, this department became one of the prestigious research departments that included competently known physicists such as Steven Weinberg, Tom Kibble, Gerald Guralnik, C. R. Hagen, Riazuddin, and John Ward.
In 1957, Punjab University conferred Salam bearing in mind an Honorary doctorate for his contribution in Particle physics. The same year with back up from his mentor, Salam launched a scholarship programme for his students in Pakistan. Salam retained mighty links considering Pakistan, and visited his country from mature to time. At Cambridge and Imperial College he formed a society of college physicists, the majority of whom were his Pakistani students. At age 33, Salam became one of the youngest persons to be elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1959. Salam took a fellowship at the Princeton University in 1959, where he met subsequent to J. Robert Oppenheimer and to whom he presented his research work upon neutrinos. Oppenheimer and Salam discussed the launch of electrodynamics, problems and their solution. His dedicated personal assistant was Jean Bouckley. In 1980, Salam became a foreign fellow of the Bangladesh Academy of Sciences.
Early in his career, Salam made an important and significant contribution in quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, including its further details into particle and nuclear physics. In his ahead of time career in Pakistan, Salam was greatly curious in mathematical series and their story to physics. Salam had played an influential role in the advancement of nuclear physics, but he maintained and dedicated himself to mathematics and teacher physics and focused Pakistan to do more research in bookish physics. However, he regarded nuclear physics (nuclear fission and nuclear power) as a non-pioneering allocation of physics as it had already “happened”. Even in Pakistan, Salam was the leading driving force in assistant professor physics in Pakistan, with many scientists he continued to touch and encourage to save their work upon theoretical physics.
Salam had a prolific research career in studious and high-energy physics. Salam had worked on theory of the neutrino – an elusive particle that was first postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the 1930s. Salam introduced chiral symmetry in the theory of neutrinos. The inauguration of chiral symmetry played crucial role in subsequent early payment of the theory of electroweak interactions. Salam vanguard passed his decree to Riazuddin, who made pioneering contributions in neutrinos. Salam introduced the huge Higgs bosons to the theory of the Standard Model, where he forward-thinking predicted the existence of proton decay. In 1963, Salam published his learned work on the vector meson. The paper introduced the relationships of vector meson, photon (vector electrodynamics), and the renormalisation of vector mesons’ known growth after the interaction. In 1961, Salam began to piece of legislation with John Clive Ward on symmetries and electroweak unification. In 1964, Salam and Ward worked on a Gauge theory for the weak and electromagnetic interaction, subsequently obtaining SU(2) × U(1) model. Salam was convinced that all the elementary particle interactions are actually the gauge interactions. In 1968, together later Weinberg and Sheldon Glashow, Salam formulated the mathematical concept of their work. While in Imperial College, Salam, along similar to Glashow and Jeffrey Goldstone, mathematically proved the Goldstone’s theorem, that a massless spin-zero seek must ham it up a theory so of spontaneous breaking of a continuous global symmetry. In 1967-8, Salam and Weinberg incorporated the Higgs mechanism into Glashow’s discovery, giving it a militant form in electroweak theory, and suitably theorised half of the Standard Model. In 1968, together behind Weinberg and Sheldon Glashow, Salam finally formulated the mathematical concept of their work.
In 1966, Salam carried out pioneering work on a assistant professor particle. Salam showed the practicable electromagnetic relationships between the Magnetic monopole and the C-violation, thus he formulated the magnetic photon.
Following the revelation of PRL Symmetry Breaking papers in 1964, Steven Weinberg and Salam were the first to apply the Higgs mechanism to electroweak symmetry breaking. Salam provided a mathematical postulation for the dealings between the Higgs boson and the electroweak symmetry theory.
In 1972, Salam began to performance with Indian-American learned physicist Jogesh Pati. Pati wrote to Salam several grow old expressing immersion to work under Salam’s direction, in reaction to which Salam eventually invited Pati to the ICTP seminar in Pakistan. Salam suggested to Pati that there should be some deep excuse why the protons and electrons are for that reason different and nevertheless carry equal but opposite electric charge. Protons carry quarks, but the electroweak theory was concerned only following the electrons and neutrinos, with nothing postulated just about quarks. If whatever of nature’s ingredients could be brought together in one supplementary symmetry, it might impression a excuse for the various features of these particles and the forces they feel. This led to the press forward of Pati–Salam model in particle physics. In 1973, Salam and Jogesh Pati were the first to statement that previously Quarks and Leptons have very similar SU(2) × U(1) representation content, they all may have thesame entities. They provided a simple realisation of the quark-lepton symmetry by postulating that lepton number was a fourth colour, dubbed “violet”.
Physicists had believed that there were four fundamental forces of nature: the gravitational force, the mighty and weak nuclear forces, and the electromagnetic force. Salam had worked upon the unification of these forces from 1959 afterward Glashow and Weinberg. While at Imperial College London, Salam successfully showed that feeble nuclear forces are not in reality different from electromagnetic forces, and two could inter-convert. Salam provided a theory that shows the unification of two fundamental forces of nature, weak nuclear forces and the electromagnetic forces, one into another. Glashow had in addition to formulated the similar work, and the theory was comprehensive in 1966. In 1967, Salam proved the electroweak unification theory mathematically, and finally published the papers. For this achievement, Salam, Glashow, and Weinberg were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979. The Nobel Prize Foundation paid praise to the scientists and issued a statement saying: “For their contributions to the theory of the unified feeble and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”. In the 1970s Salam continued a pain to unify forces by including the mighty interaction in a grand unified theory.