Abraham Lincoln (; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, the country’s greatest moral, cultural, constitutional, and political crisis. He succeeded in preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, bolstering the federal government, and modernizing the U.S. economy.
Abraham Lincoln (; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, the country’s greatest moral, cultural, constitutional, and diplomatic crisis. He succeeded in preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, bolstering the federal government, and modernizing the U.S. economy.
Lincoln was born into poverty in a log cabin and was raised upon the frontier primarily in Indiana. He was self-educated and became a lawyer, Whig Party leader, Illinois own up legislator, and U.S. Congressman from Illinois. In 1849, he returned to his be active practice but became vexed by the establishment of extra lands to slavery in view of that of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. He reentered politics in 1854, becoming a leader in the new Republican Party, and he reached a national audience in the 1858 debates adjacent to Stephen Douglas. Lincoln ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North in victory. Pro-slavery elements in the South equated his ability with the North’s leaving behind of their right to practice slavery, and southern states began seceding from the Union. To safe its independence, the supplementary Confederate States fired on Fort Sumter, a U.S. fort in the South, and Lincoln called up forces to suppress the rebellion and restore the Union.
Lincoln, a temperate Republican, had to navigate a contentious array of factions with contacts and opponents from both the Democratic and Republican parties. His allies, the War Democrats and the Radical Republicans, demanded prickly treatment of the Southern Confederates. Anti-war Democrats (called “Copperheads”) despised Lincoln, and irreconcilable pro-Confederate elements plotted his assassination. He managed the factions by exploiting their mutual enmity, carefully distributing political patronage, and by fascinating to the American people. His Gettysburg Address appealed to nationalistic, republican, egalitarian, libertarian, and democratic sentiments. Lincoln scrutinized the strategy and tactics in the prosecution effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade of the South’s trade. He suspended habeas corpus in Maryland, and he averted British work by defusing the Trent Affair. He engineered the fall to slavery considering his Emancipation Proclamation, including his order that the Army and Navy liberate, protect, and recruit former slaves. He along with encouraged border states to outlaw slavery, and promoted the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which outlawed slavery across the country.
Lincoln managed his own wealthy re-election campaign. He sought to heal the war-torn nation through reconciliation. On April 14, 1865, just days after the war’s fall at Appomattox, he was attending a feat at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C., with his wife Mary subsequently he was fatally shot by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln is remembered as a martyr and hero of the United States and is consistently ranked as one of the greatest presidents in American history.