Alan Mathison Turing OBE FRS (/ˈtjʊərɪŋ/; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist. Turing was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general-purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.

Alan Mathison Turing OBE FRS (/ˈtjʊərɪŋ/; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and university biologist. Turing was highly influential in the further of assistant professor computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation when the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general-purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the dad of hypothetical computer science and artificial intelligence.

Born in Maida Vale, London, Turing was raised in southern England. He graduated at King’s College, Cambridge, with a degree in mathematics. Whilst he was a fellow at Cambridge, he published a proof demonstrating that some purely mathematical yes–no questions can never be answered by computation and defined a Turing machine, and went upon to prove the halting misery for Turing machines is undecidable. In 1938, he obtained his PhD from the Department of Mathematics at Princeton University. During the Second World War, Turing worked for the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park, Britain’s codebreaking centre that produced Ultra intelligence. For a mature he led Hut 8, the section that was blamed for German naval cryptanalysis. Here, he devised a number of techniques for speeding the breaking of German ciphers, including improvements to the pre-war Polish bombe method, an electromechanical robot that could locate settings for the Enigma machine. Turing played a crucial role in cracking intercepted coded messages that enabled the Allies to defeat the Axis powers in many crucial engagements, including the Battle of the Atlantic. Official battle historian Harry Hinsley estimated that this work edited the prosecution in Europe by greater than two years and saved exceeding 14 million lives.

After the war, Turing worked at the National Physical Laboratory, where he intended the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE), one of the first designs for a stored-program computer. In 1948, Turing associated Max Newman’s Computing Machine Laboratory, at the Victoria University of Manchester, where he helped manufacture the Manchester computers and became eager in mathematical biology. He wrote a paper upon the chemical basis of morphogenesis and predicted oscillating chemical reactions such as the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, first observed in the 1960s. Despite these accomplishments, he was never abundantly recognised in his house country during his lifetime because much of his sham was covered by the Official Secrets Act.

Turing was prosecuted in 1952 for homosexual acts; the Labouchere Amendment of 1885 had mandated that “gross indecency” was a criminal offence in the UK. He all the rage chemical castration treatment, with DES, as an vary to prison. Turing died in 1954, 16 days back his 42nd birthday, from cyanide poisoning. An inquest clear his death as a suicide, but it has been noted that the known evidence is moreover consistent bearing in mind accidental poisoning.

In 2009, following an Internet campaign, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an endorsed public apology on behalf of the British direction for “the appalling showing off he was treated”. Queen Elizabeth II fixed Turing a posthumous pardon in 2013. The “Alan Turing law” is now an informal term for a 2017 do its stuff in the United Kingdom that retroactively pardoned men cautioned or convicted under historical legislation that outlawed homosexual acts. Turing has an extensive legacy with statues of him and many things named after him, including an annual award for computer science innovations. He appears on the current Bank of England £50 note, which was released to coincide in the proclaim of his birthday. A 2019 BBC series, as voted by the audience, named him the greatest person of the 20th century.