Alan Mathison Turing(; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist. Turing was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general-purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.
Alan Mathison Turing(; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and researcher biologist. Turing was deeply influential in the proceed of bookish computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation as soon as the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general-purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the daddy of hypothetical computer science and exaggerated intelligence.
Born in Maida Vale, London, Turing was raised in southern England. He graduated at King’s College, Cambridge, with a degree in mathematics. Whilst he was a fellow at Cambridge, he published a proof demonstrating that some purely mathematical yes–no questions can never be answered by computation and defined a Turing machine, and went upon to prove the halting pain for Turing machines is undecidable. In 1938, he obtained his PhD from the Department of Mathematics at Princeton University. During the Second World War, Turing worked for the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park, Britain’s codebreaking centre that produced Ultra intelligence. For a era he led Hut 8, the section that was responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. Here, he devised a number of techniques for speeding the breaking of German ciphers, including improvements to the pre-war Polish bombe method, an electromechanical robot that could locate settings for the Enigma machine. Turing played a crucial role in cracking intercepted coded messages that enabled the Allies to crush the Axis powers in many crucial engagements, including the Battle of the Atlantic. Official clash historian Harry Hinsley estimated that this work abbreviated the act in Europe by higher than two years and saved higher than 14 million lives.
After the war, Turing worked at the National Physical Laboratory, where he designed the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE), one of the first designs for a stored-program computer. In 1948, Turing joined Max Newman’s Computing Machine Laboratory, at the Victoria University of Manchester, where he helped build the Manchester computers and became interested in mathematical biology. He wrote a paper on the chemical basis of morphogenesis and predicted oscillating chemical reactions such as the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, first observed in the 1960s. Despite these accomplishments, he was never sufficiently recognised in his home country during his lifetime because much of his take effect was covered by the Official Secrets Act.
Turing was prosecuted in 1952 for homosexual acts; the Labouchere Amendment of 1885 had mandated that “gross indecency” was a criminal offence in the UK. He in style chemical castration treatment, with DES, as an substitute to prison. Turing died in 1954, 16 days before his 42nd birthday, from cyanide poisoning. An inquest distinct his death as a suicide, but it has been noted that the known evidence is next consistent considering accidental poisoning.
In 2009, following an Internet campaign, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an recognized public apology on behalf of the British running for “the appalling artifice he was treated”. Queen Elizabeth II approved Turing a posthumous liberty in 2013. The “Alan Turing law” is now an informal term for a 2017 discharge duty in the United Kingdom that retroactively pardoned men cautioned or convicted below historical legislation that outlawed homosexual acts. Turing has an extensive legacy taking into consideration statues of him and many things named after him, including an annual rave review for computer science innovations. He appears upon the current Bank of England £50 note, which was released to coincide as soon as his birthday. A 2019 BBC series, as voted by the audience, named him the greatest person of the 20th century.