Alexander Alekhine (Russian: Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Але́хин, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekhin; pronounced [ɐlʲɪkˈsandr ɐlʲɪkˈsandrəvʲɪtɕ ɐˈlʲexʲɪn];[note 2] October 31 [O.S. October 19] 1892 – March 24, 1946) was a Russian and French chess player and the fourth World Chess Champion, a title he held for two reigns.
Alexander Alekhine (Russian: Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Але́хин, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekhin; pronounced [ɐlʲɪkˈsandr ɐlʲɪkˈsandrəvʲɪtɕ ɐˈlʲexʲɪn]; October 31 [O.S. October 19] 1892 – March 24, 1946) was a Russian and French chess player and the fourth World Chess Champion, a title he held for two reigns.
By the age of 22, Alekhine was already in the midst of the strongest chess players in the world. During the 1920s, he won most of the tournaments in which he played. In 1921, Alekhine left Soviet Russia and emigrated to France, which he represented after 1925. In 1927, he became the fourth World Chess Champion by defeating José Raúl Capablanca.
In the in front 1930s, Alekhine dominated tournament work and won two top-class tournaments by large margins. He then played first board for France in five Chess Olympiads, winning individual prizes in each (four medals and a brilliancy prize). Alekhine offered Capablanca a rematch on the same demanding terms that Capablanca had set for him, and negotiations dragged upon for years without making much progress. Meanwhile, Alekhine defended his title with ease against Efim Bogoljubov in 1929 and 1934. He was defeated by Max Euwe in 1935, but regained his crown in the 1937 rematch. His tournament record, however, was uneven, and rising young person stars like Paul Keres, Reuben Fine, and Mikhail Botvinnik threatened his title. Negotiations for a title match afterward Keres or Botvinnik were halted by the outbreak of World War II in Europe in 1939. Negotiations afterward Botvinnik for a world title come to an understanding were proceeding in 1946 subsequently Alekhine died in Portugal, in vague circumstances. Alekhine is the lonesome World Chess Champion to have died even though holding the title.
Alekhine is known for his fierce and imaginative attacking style, combined with good positional and endgame skill. He is severely regarded as a chess writer and theoretician, having produced innovations in a wide range of chess openings and having complete his broadcast to Alekhine’s Defence and several other inauguration variations. He then composed some endgame studies.
Alekhine was born into a rich family in Moscow, Russia, on October 31, 1892. His father, Alexander Ivanovich Alekhin, was a landowner and Privy Councilor to the conservative legislative Fourth Duma. His mother, Anisya Ivanovna Alekhina (born Prokhorova), was the daughter of a rich industrialist. Alekhine was introduced to chess by his mother, his older brother Alexei,[better source needed] and his older sister Varvara.
Alekhine’s first known game was from a correspondence chess tournament that began upon December 3, 1902, when he was ten years old. He participated in several correspondence tournaments, sponsored by the chess magazine Shakhmatnoe Obozrenie (“Chess Review”), between 1902 and 1911. In 1907, he played his first over-the-board tournament, the Moscow chess club’s Spring Tournament. Later that year, he tied for 11th–13th in the club’s Autumn Tournament; his elder brother, Alexei, tied for 4th–6th place. In 1908, Alexander won the club’s Spring Tournament, at the age of 15.[unreliable source] In 1909, he won the All-Russian Amateur Tournament in Saint Petersburg. For the adjacent few years, he played in increasingly stronger tournaments, some of them uncovered Russia. At first he had infected results, but by the age of 16 he had usual himself as one of Russia’s top players. He played first board in two friendly team matches: St. Petersburg Chess Club vs. Moscow Chess Club in 1911 and Moscow vs. St. Petersburg in 1912 (both drew similar to Yevgeny Znosko-Borovsky). By the decline of 1911, Alekhine moved to St. Petersburg, where he entered the Imperial Law School for Nobles. By 1912, he was the strongest chess player in the St. Petersburg Chess Society. In March 1912, he won the St. Petersburg Chess Club Winter Tournament. In April 1912, he won the 1st Category Tournament of the St. Petersburg Chess Club. In January 1914, Alekhine won his first major Russian tournament, when he tied for first place past Aron Nimzowitsch in the All-Russian Masters Tournament at St. Petersburg. Afterwards, they drew in a mini-match for first prize (each won a game). Alekhine moreover played several matches in this period, and his results showed the thesame pattern: mixed at first but highly developed consistently good.
In April–May 1914, another major St. Petersburg 1914 chess tournament was held in the capital of the Russian Empire, in which Alekhine took third place behind Emanuel Lasker and José Raúl Capablanca. By some accounts, Tsar Nicholas II conferred the title of “Grandmaster of Chess” on each of the five finalists (Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Siegbert Tarrasch, and Frank Marshall). (Chess historian Edward Winter has questioned this, stating that the antiquated known sources supporting this bank account are an article by Robert Lewis Taylor in the June 15, 1940, issue of The New Yorker and Marshall’s autobiography My 50 Years of Chess (1942).) Alekhine’s surprising capability made him a enormous contender for the World Chess Championship. Whether or not the title was formally awarded to him, “Thanks to this performance, Alekhine became a grandmaster in his own right and in the eyes of the audience.” In July 1914, Alekhine tied for first in the same way as Marshall in Paris.
In July–August 1914, Alekhine was leading an international Mannheim tournament, the 19th DSB Congress (German Chess Federation Congress) in Mannheim, Germany, with nine wins, one pull and one loss, when World War I broke out. Alekhine’s prize was 1,100 marks (worth approximately 11,000 euros in terms of purchasing power today). After the support of war adjacent to Russia, eleven “Russian” players (Alekhine, Efim Bogoljubov, Fedor Bogatyrchuk, Alexander Flamberg, N. Koppelman, Boris Maliutin, Ilya Rabinovich, Peter Romanovsky, Pyotr Saburov, Alexey Selezniev, and Samuil Weinstein) were interned in Rastatt, Germany. On September 14, 17, and 29 of 1914, four of them (Alekhine, Bogatyrchuk, Saburov, and Koppelman) were freed and allowed to recompense home. Alekhine made his way put stirring to to Russia (via Switzerland, Italy, London, Sweden, and Finland) by the fade away of October 1914. A fifth player, Romanovsky, was released in 1915, and a sixth, Flamberg, was allowed to compensation to Warsaw in 1916.
When Alekhine returned to Russia, he helped lift money by giving simultaneous exhibitions to aid the Russian chess players who remained interned in Germany. In December 1915, he won the Moscow Chess Club Championship. In April 1916, he won a mini-match adjoining Alexander Evensohn taking into account two wins and one loss at Kiev, and in summer he served in the Union of Cities (Red Cross) on the Austrian front. In September, he played five people in a blindfold display at a Russian military hospital at Tarnopol. In 1918, he won a “triangular tournament” in Moscow. In June of the in the same way as year, after the Russians annoyed the German army to retreat from Ukraine, Alekhine was charged with contacts with White goings-on counter-intelligence and was briefly imprisoned in Odessa’s death cell by the Odessa Cheka. Rumors appeared in the West that he had been killed by the Bolsheviks.[unreliable source]
When conditions in Russia became more settled, Alekhine proved he was in the course of Russia’s strongest players. In January 1920, he swept the championship of Moscow (11/11), but was not declared champion because he was not a resident of the city. In October 1920 he won the All-Russian Chess Olympiad in Moscow (+9−0=6); the tournament was retroactively called the first USSR Championship. His brother Alexei took third place in the tournament for amateurs.
In March 1920, Alekhine married Alexandra Batayeva. They divorced the adjacent year. For a terse time in 1920–21, he worked as an interpreter for the Communist International (Comintern) and was appointed secretary to the Education Department. In this capacity, he met a Swiss journalist and Comintern delegate, Anneliese Rüegg, who was thirteen years older than he was, and they married upon March 15, 1921. Shortly after, Alekhine was given permission to depart Russia for a visit to the West bearing in mind his wife. He never returned. In June 1921, he left his second wife in Paris and went to Berlin.[unreliable source]
In 1921–1923, Alekhine played seven mini-matches. In 1921, he won neighboring Nikolay Grigoriev (+2−0=5) in Moscow, drew similar to Richard Teichmann (+2−2=2) and won adjoining Friedrich Sämisch (+2−0=0), both in Berlin. In 1922, he won neighboring Ossip Bernstein (+1−0=1) and Arnold Aurbach (+1−0=1), both in Paris, and Manuel Golmayo (+1−0=1) in Madrid. In 1923, he won next to André Muffang (+2−0=0) in Paris.
From 1921 to 1927, Alekhine won or shared first prize in practically two-thirds of the many tournaments in which he played. His least successful efforts were a tie for third place at Vienna 1922 at the back Akiba Rubinstein and Richard Réti, and third place at the New York 1924 chess tournament, behind ex-champion Emanuel Lasker and world champion José Raúl Capablanca (but ahead of Frank Marshall, Richard Réti, Géza Maróczy, Efim Bogoljubov, Savielly Tartakower, Frederick Yates, Edward Lasker, and Dawid Janowski). Technically, Alekhine’s deed was mostly bigger than his competitors’—even Capablanca’s—but he lacked confidence taking into account playing his major rivals.
Alekhine’s main try throughout this epoch was to arrange a match later Capablanca. He thought the greatest obstacle was not Capablanca’s play, but the requirement below the 1922 “London rules” (at Capablanca’s insistence) that the challenger lift a purse of US$10,000 (equivalent to about $391,000 in 2006), of which the defending champion would get over half though defeated. Alekhine in November 1921 and Rubinstein and Nimzowitsch in 1923 challenged Capablanca, but were unable to lift the $10,000.[better source needed] Raising the keep was Alekhine’s preliminary objective; he even went on tour, playing simultaneous exhibitions for modest fees hours of daylight after day. In New York on April 27, 1924, he broke the world photo album for simultaneous blindfold pretense when he played twenty-six opponents (the previous autograph album was twenty-five, set by Gyula Breyer), winning sixteen games, losing five, and drawing five after twelve hours of play. He broke his own world record on February 1, 1925, by playing twenty-eight games blindfold simultaneously in Paris, winning twenty-two, drawing three, and losing three.[unreliable source]
In 1924, he applied for the first mature for a house privilege in France and for French citizenship while pursuing his studies in the Sorbonne Faculty of Law to buy a PhD. Although sources differ not quite whether he completed his studies there, he was known as “Dr. Alekhine” in the 1930s. His thesis was upon the Chinese prison system. “He usual a degree in achievement in Saint Petersburg in 1914 but never practiced.”
His French citizenship application was postponed because of his frequent travels abroad to bill chess and because he was reported past in April 1922, shortly after his initiation in France, as a “bolshevist charged by the Soviets of a special mission in France”. Later in 1927, the French Chess Federation asked the Ministry of Justice to intervene in Alekhine’s favor to have him help the French team in the first Nation tournament to be held in London in July 1927. Nevertheless, Alekhine had to wait for a further law on naturalization which was published on 10 August 1927. The perform granting him French citizenship (among hundreds of additional citizens) was signed upon 5 November 1927 and published in the Official Gazette of the French Republic on 14–15 November 1927, while Alekhine was playing Capablanca for the World title in Buenos Aires.
In October 1926, Alekhine won in Buenos Aires. From December 1926 to January 1927, he prominence Max Euwe 5½–4½ in a match. In 1927, he married his third wife, Nadiezda Vasiliev (née Fabritzky), another older woman, the widow of the Russian general[better source needed] V. Vasiliev.