Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (Persian: سید علی حسینی خامنهای, pronounced [ʔæˈliː hosejˈniː xɒːmeneˈʔiː] (listen); born 19 April 1939) is a Twelver Shia Marja’ and the second and current supreme leader of Iran, in office since 1989. He was previously President of Iran from 1981 to 1989. Khamenei is the longest serving head of state in the Middle East, as well as the second-longest serving Iranian leader of the last century, after Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (Persian: سید علی حسینی خامنهای, pronounced [ʔæˈliː hosejˈniː xɒːmeneˈʔiː] (listen); born 19 April 1939) is a Twelver Shia Marja’ and the second and current unchangeable leader of Iran, in office previously 1989. He was previously President of Iran from 1981 to 1989. Khamenei is the longest serving head of give access in the Middle East, as skillfully as the second-longest serving Iranian leader of the last century, after Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
According to his approved website, Khamenei was arrested six epoch before mammal sent into exile for three years during Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s reign. After the Iranian revolution overthrowing the shah, he was the ambition of an attempted assassination in June 1981 that paralysed his right arm. Khamenei was one of Iran’s leaders during the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s, and developed near ties next the now powerful Revolutionary Guards which he controls, and whose commanders are elected and dismissed by him. The Revolutionary Guards have been deployed to suppress challenger to him. Khamenei served as the third President of Iran from 1981 to 1989, while becoming a close ally of the first Supreme Leader, Ruhollah Khomeini. Shortly before his death, Khomeini had a disagreement gone the receiver he had chosen — Hussein Ali Montazeri — so there was no agreed upon successor later than Khomeini died. The Assembly of Experts elected Khamenei as the adjacent Supreme Leader upon 4 June 1989, at the age of 50. According to Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Khamenei was the man Khomeini had fixed as his successor past dying. Khamenei has been head of the servants of Astan Quds Razavi back 14 April 1979.
As Supreme Leader, Khamenei is the most powerful political authority in the Islamic Republic. He is the head of divulge of Iran, the commander-in-chief of its armed forces, and can concern decrees and make the answer decisions on the main policies of the doling out in many fields such as economy, the environment, foreign policy, and national planning in Iran. Khamenei has either direct or indirect control higher than the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government, as capably as the military and media, according to Karim Sadjadpour. All candidates for the Assembly of Experts, the Presidency and the Majlis (Parliament) are vetted by the Guardian Council, whose members are agreed directly or indirectly by the Supreme Leader of Iran. There have been along with instances when the Guardian Council reversed its ban on particular people after subconscious ordered to do therefore by Khamenei.
There have been major protests during Khamenei’s reign, including the 1994 Qazvin Protests, the 1999 Iranian student protests, the 2009 Iranian presidential election protests, the 2011–2012 Iranian protests, the 2017–2018 Iranian protests, the 2018–2019 Iranian general strikes and protests, and the 2019–2020 Iranian protests. Journalists, bloggers, and additional individuals have been put upon trial in Iran for the stroke of insulting Supreme Leader Khamenei, often in conjunction with blasphemy charges. Their sentences have included lashing and jail time, and some of them have died in custody. Regarding the nuclear program of Iran, Khamenei issued a fatwa in 2003 forbidding the production, stockpiling, and use of all kinds of weapons of growth destruction.