Andrea Rita Dworkin (September 26, 1946 – April 9, 2005) was an American radical feminist activist and writer. She is best known for her analysis of pornography, although her feminist writings, beginning in 1974, span 40 years. They are found in a dozen solo works: nine books of non-fiction, two novels, and a collection of short stories. Another three volumes were co-written or co-edited with US Constitutional law professor and feminist activist, Catharine A. MacKinnon.
Andrea Rita Dworkin (September 26, 1946 – April 9, 2005) was an American advocate feminist dissenter and writer. She is best known for her analysis of pornography, although her feminist writings, beginning in 1974, span 40 years. They are found in a dozen solo works: nine books of non-fiction, two novels, and a deposit of short stories. Another three volumes were co-written or co-edited similar to US Constitutional bill professor and feminist activist, Catharine A. MacKinnon.
The central theme of Dworkin’s behave is re-evaluating Western society, culture, and politics. She did this through the prism of men’s sexual manipulation against women in a patriarchal context. She wrote on a broad range of topics including the lives of Joan of Arc, Margaret Papandreou, and Nicole Brown Simpson; she analyzed the literature of Charlotte Brontë, Jean Rhys, Leo Tolstoy, Kōbō Abe, Tennessee Williams, James Baldwin, and Isaac Bashevis Singer; she brought her own objector feminist slant to her breakdown of subjects historically written or described from men’s reduction of view, including fairy tales, homosexuality, lesbianism, virginity, antisemitism, the State of Israel, the Holocaust, biological superiority, and racism. She interrogated premises underlying concepts such as release of the press and civil liberties. She theorized the sexual politics of intelligence, fear, courage, and integrity. She described a male supremacist political ideology manifesting in and constituted by rape, battery, prostitution, and pornography.
In Dworkin’s lifetime, two volumes were written subsequently consideration and analysis of the body of her work: Andrea Dworkin by Jeremy Mark Robinson, first published in 1994, and Without Apology: Andrea Dworkin’s Art and Politics by Cindy Jenefsky in 1998. Following Dworkin’s death, several works by or practically her have been released. A play, Aftermath, was produced in 2015 by John Stoltenberg after he found unpublished writing of hers that he condensed for the stage. An anthology of her work, Last Days at Hot Slit, was published in 2019. In 2020, a documentary feature roughly her, My Name Is Andrea, by Pratibha Parmar was released, and a biography of her life, Andrea Dworkin: The Feminist as Revolutionary, by Martin Duberman, was published.
Andrea Dworkin was born upon September 26, 1946, in Camden, New Jersey, to Harry Dworkin and Sylvia Spiegel. Her father was the grandson of a Russian Jew who fled Russia taking into consideration he was 15 years antiquated in order to leave suddenly military support and her mother was the child of Jewish emigrants from Hungary. She had one younger brother, Mark. Her dad was a assistant professor teacher and dedicated socialist, whom she qualified with challenging her passion for social justice. Her membership with her mother was strained, but Dworkin difficult wrote approximately how her mother’s belief in authenticated birth manage and genuine abortion, “long before these were respectable beliefs”, inspired her higher activism.
Though she described her Jewish household as swine in many ways dominated by the memory of the Holocaust, it nonetheless provided a glad childhood until she reached the age of nine, when an dull man molested her in a movie theater. When Dworkin was ten, her intimates moved from the city to the suburbs of Cherry Hill, New Jersey (then known as Delaware Township), which she cutting edge wrote she “experienced as visceral kidnapped by aliens and taken to a penal colony”. In sixth grade, the administration at her new hypothetical punished her for refusing to sing “Silent Night” (as a Jew, she objected to being irritated to sing Christian religious songs at school). She said she “probably would have become a rabbi” if women could have while she was in high school and she “would have liked” being a Talmudic scholar.
Dworkin began writing poetry and fiction in the sixth grade. Around that time, she was undecided practically whether to become a lawyer or a writer, because of her captivation then in abortion, and chose writing because she could “do it in a room alone” and “nobody could stop me”. Throughout high school, she edit avidly, with sponsorship from her parents. She was particularly influenced by Arthur Rimbaud, Charles Baudelaire, Henry Miller, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Che Guevara, and the Beat poets, especially Allen Ginsberg, and has included accompanied by writers she “admired most” Jean Genet, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and Lord Byron. She graduated in 1964 from what is now Cherry Hill High School West.
In 1965, while a freshman at Bennington College, Dworkin was arrested during an anti-Vietnam War bother at the United States Mission to the United Nations and sent to the New York Women’s House of Detention, known for housing Famous leftist women. After writing to the Commissioner of Corrections Anna Cross, Dworkin testified that the doctors in the House of Detention gave her an internal examination which was so coarse that she bled for days afterwards. She spoke in public and testified past a grand board of judges about her experience, and the media coverage of her testimony made national and international news. The grand judges declined to make an indictment in the case, but Dworkin’s testimony contributed to public revulsion over the manipulation of inmates. The prison was closed seven years later.
Soon after testifying since the grand jury, Dworkin left Bennington College upon the liner Castel Felice to conscious in Greece and to pursue her writing. She traveled from Paris to Athens upon the Orient Express, and went to alive and write on the island of Crete. While there, she wrote a series of poems titled (Vietnam) Variations, a stock of poems and prose poems that she printed on the island in a folder called Child, and a novel in a style resembling magical realism called Notes on Burning Boyfriend—a citation to Norman Morrison, a pacifist who had burned himself to death in activity of the Vietnam War. She next wrote several poems and dialogues which she hand-printed after returning to the United States in a record called Morning Hair.
After full of life in Crete, Dworkin returned to Bennington College for two years, where she continued to testing literature and participated in campaigns neighboring the college’s student conduct code, for contraception upon campus, for the legalization of abortion, and against the Vietnam War. She graduated in the same way as a Bachelor’s degree in literature in 1968. It was during those years that she produced two books of poetry, Child (1965) and Morning Hair (1967).
After graduation, Dworkin moved to Amsterdam to interview Dutch anarchists in the Provo motion which used theatrical street undertakings to instigate change. While there, she became lively with one of the anarchists, Cornelius (Iwan) Dirk de Bruin. Soon after they were married, she said, de Bruin began to abuse her severely, punching and kicking her, burning her gone cigarettes, beating her upon her legs subsequently a wooden beam, and banging her head adjacent to the floor until he knocked her unconscious.
After she left de Bruin late in 1971, Dworkin said, her ex-husband attacked, persecuted, and harassed her, beating her and threatening her whenever he found where she was hiding. She found herself desperate for money, often homeless, thousands of miles from her family, later remarking that “I often lived the excitement of a fugitive, except that it was the more desperate vivaciousness of a battered girl who had run off for the last time, whatever the outcome.” Due to poverty, Dworkin turned to prostitution for a period. Ricki Abrams, a feminist and fellow expatriate, sheltered Dworkin in her home and helped her find places to stay upon houseboats, a communal farm, and in lonesome buildings. Dworkin tried to put-on up the money to compensation to the United States.
Abrams introduced Dworkin to early objector feminist writing from the United States, and Dworkin was notably inspired by Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics, Shulamith Firestone’s The Dialectic of Sex, and Robin Morgan’s Sisterhood is Powerful. She and Abrams began to con together on “early pieces and fragments” of a forward looking feminist text on the loathing of women in culture and history, including a completed draft of a chapter on the pornographic counterculture magazine Suck, which was published by a group of fellow expatriates in the Netherlands.
Dworkin forward-thinking wrote that she eventually certainly to urge on smuggle a briefcase of heroin through customs in compensation for $1,000 and an airplane ticket, thinking that if she was affluent she could return home with the ticket and the money, and if caught she would at least flee her ex-husband’s abuse by going to prison. The deal for the briefcase fell through, but the man who had promised Dworkin the child support gave her the airline ticket anyway, and she returned to the United States in 1972.
Before she left Amsterdam, Dworkin spoke in the reveal of Abrams more or less her experiences in the Netherlands, the emerging feminist movement, and the tape they had begun to write together. Dworkin definitely to fixed the book—which she eventually titled Woman Hating—and state it bearing in mind she reached the United States. In her memoirs, Dworkin relates that during that conversation, she vowed to dedicate her vibrancy to the feminist movement:
In New York, Dworkin worked once more as an anti-war organizer, participated in demonstrations for lesbian rights and against apartheid in South Africa. The feminist poet Muriel Rukeyser hired her as an assistant (Dworkin higher said, “I was the worst partner in the history of the world. But Muriel kept me upon because she believed in me as a writer.”) Dworkin also joined a feminist consciousness raising group, and soon became in force in protester feminist organizing, focusing on campaigns next to men’s batter against women. In complement to her writing and activism, Dworkin gained notoriety as a speaker, mostly for happenings organized by local feminist groups. She became without difficulty known for passionate, uncompromising speeches that aroused strong feelings in both supporters and critics, and inspired her audience to action, such as her speech at the first Take Back the Night march in November 1978, and her 1983 speech at the Midwest Regional Conference of the National Organization for Changing Men (now the National Organization for Men Against Sexism) titled “I Want a Twenty-Four Hour Truce During Which There Is No Rape.”
In 1974, Dworkin met John Stoltenberg taking into consideration they both walked out upon a poetry reading in Greenwich Village greater than misogynist material. They became close friends and eventually came to conscious together. Stoltenberg began writing a series of essays, books, and articles examining manhood and masculinity from a enlightened feminist perspective. Although Dworkin publicly wrote “I adore John subsequent to my heart and soul” and Stoltenberg described Dworkin as “the adore of my life”, she continued to publicly identify herself as lesbian, and he as gay. Stoltenberg, recounting the perplexity that their membership seemed to cause people in the press, summarized the association by saying, “So I make a clean breast only the simplest facts publicly: yes, Andrea and I flesh and blood together and adore each additional and we are each other’s dynamism partner, and yes we are both out.”
Dworkin and Stoltenberg were married in 1998; after her death Stoltenberg said, “It’s why we never told anybody in ambition of fact that we married, because people gain confused nearly that. They think, Oh, she’s yours. And we just did not desire that nonsense.”
From 1974 through 1983, Dworkin wrote prolifically, producing four volumes developing her overall thesis about the practice, meaning, and law of patriarchal, misogynist violence. In 1977, she became an join of the Women’s Institute for Freedom of the Press. In the fifteen year era spanning 1985 – 1997, she produced eight more books: three of them later Catharine A. MacKinnon either as co-author or editor and two collections of formerly unpublished essays and speeches. Her two pure books came out in the first years of the other century, the latter subconscious a memoir.
Dworkin was a strong opponent of President Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton during the loathing centered on his tricks toward Monica Lewinsky, whom she supported. She plus expressed sustain for Paula Jones and Juanita Broaddrick.
In June 2000, she published Scapegoat: The Jews, Israel, and Women’s Liberation, in which she compared the oppression of women to the persecution of Jews, discussed the sexual politics of Jewish identity and antisemitism, and called for the launch of a women’s homeland as a response to the oppression of women.
Also that same month, Dworkin published articles in the New Statesman and in The Guardian, stating that one or more men had raped her in her hotel room in Paris the previous year, putting GHB in her beverage to disable her. Her articles ignited public controversy afterward writers such as Catherine Bennett and Julia Gracen published doubts roughly her account, polarizing instruction between skeptics and supporters such as Catharine MacKinnon, Katharine Viner, and Gloria Steinem. Her quotation to the incident was far along described by Charlotte Raven as a “widely disbelieved claim”, better seen as “a kind of artistic housekeeping”. Emotionally fragile and in failing health, Dworkin mostly withdrew from public vibrancy for two years when the articles.
In 2002, Dworkin published her autobiography, Heartbreak: The Political Memoir of a Feminist Militant. She soon began to speak and write again, and in an interview later than Julie Bindel in 2004 said, “I thought I was finished, but I environment a extra vitality. I desire to continue to assist women.” She published three more articles in The Guardian and began work upon a supplementary book, Writing America: How Novelists Invented and Gendered a Nation, on the role of novelists such as Ernest Hemingway and William Faulkner in the further of American embassy and cultural identity, which was left unfinished once she died.
During her supreme years, Dworkin suffered fragile health, and she revealed in her last column for The Guardian that she had been weakened and approximately crippled for the considering several years by her weight and coarse osteoarthritis in the knees. Shortly after returning from Paris in 1999, she had been hospitalized bearing in mind a high fever and blood clots in her legs. A few months after innate released from the hospital, she became increasingly unable to fiddle with her knees, and underwent surgery to replace her knees when titanium and plastic prosthetics. She wrote, “The doctor who knows me best says that osteoarthritis begins long in the past it cripples—in my case, possibly from homelessness, or sexual abuse, or beatings upon my legs, or my weight. John, my partner, blames Scapegoat, a testing of Jewish identity and women’s liberation that took me nine years to write; it is, he says, the autograph album that stole my health. I blame the drug-rape that I experienced in 1999 in Paris.” When a newspaper interviewer asked her how she would taking into account to be remembered, she said, “In a museum, when male supremacy is dead. I’d afterward my exploit to be an anthropological artifact from an extinct, primitive society.” She died in her sleep upon the daylight of April 9, 2005, at her house in Washington, DC. The cause of death was later clear to be acute myocarditis. She was 58 years old.