Arnold Joseph Toynbee(; 14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, a philosopher of history, an author of numerous books and a research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and King’s College London. From 1918 to 1950, Toynbee was considered a leading specialist on international affairs.
Arnold Joseph Toynbee(; 14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, a philosopher of history, an author of numerous books and a research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and King’s College London. From 1918 to 1950, Toynbee was considered a leading specialist upon international affairs.
He is best known for his 12-volume A Study of History (1934–1961). With his prodigious output of papers, articles, speeches and presentations, and numerous books translated into many languages, Toynbee was a widely gain entry to and discussed scholar in the 1940s and 1950s. By the 1960s his magnum opus had fallen out of favour in the midst of mainstream historians, due to reply that Toynbee favoured myths, allegories and religion on culmination of factual data.
Toynbee (born in London on 14 April 1889) was the son of Harry Valpy Toynbee (1861–1941), secretary of the Charity Organization Society, and his wife Sarah Edith Marshall (1859–1939); his sister Jocelyn Toynbee was an archaeologist and art historian. Toynbee was the grandson of Joseph Toynbee, nephew of the 19th-century economist Arnold Toynbee (1852–1883) and descendant of prominent British intellectuals for several generations. He won scholarships to Winchester College and Balliol College, Oxford (Literae Humaniores, 1907–1911), and studied briefly at the British School at Athens, an experience that influenced the genesis of his philosophy approximately the decline of civilisations.
In 1912 he became a tutor and fellow in ancient archives at Balliol College, and in 1915 he began full of life for the wisdom department of the British Foreign Office. After serving as a delegate to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 he served as professor of Byzantine and advocate Greek studies at the University of London. It was here that Toynbee was appointed to the Koraes Chair of Modern Greek and Byzantine History, Language and Literature at King’s College, although he would ultimately step next to from following a controversial academic dispute similar to the professoriate of the College. From 1921 to 1922 he was the Manchester Guardian correspondent during the Greco-Turkish War, an experience that resulted in the statement of The Western Question in Greece and Turkey. In 1925 he became research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and director of studies at the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London. He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy (FBA), the United Kingdoms national academy for the humanities and social sciences, in 1937.
His first marriage was to Rosalind Murray (1890–1967), daughter of Gilbert Murray, in 1913; they had three sons, of whom Philip Toynbee was the second. They divorced in 1946; Toynbee after that married his research assistant, Veronica M. Boulter (1893-1980), in the similar year. He died upon 22 October 1975, age 86.