Bashar Hafez al-Assad (born 11 September 1965) is the 19th president of Syria since 17 July 2000. In addition, he is the commander-in-chief of the Syrian Armed Forces and the Secretary-General of the Central Command of the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party. His father, Hafez al-Assad, was the president of Syria before him, serving from 1971 to 2000.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (born 11 September 1965) is the 19th president of Syria since 17 July 2000. In addition, he is the commander-in-chief of the Syrian Armed Forces and the Secretary-General of the Central Command of the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party. His father, Hafez al-Assad, was the president of Syria in the past him, serving from 1971 to 2000.
Born and raised in Damascus, Bashar al-Assad graduated from the medical scholastic of Damascus University in 1988 and began to perform as a doctor in the Syrian Army. Four years later, he attended postgraduate studies at the Western Eye Hospital in London, specialising in ophthalmology. In 1994, after his elder brother Bassel died in a car crash, Bashar was recalled to Syria to accept over Bassel’s role as beneficiary apparent. He entered the military academy, taking proceedings of the Syrian military presence in Lebanon in 1998.
Political scientists have characterised the Assad family’s pronounce of Syria as a personalist dictatorship. On 17 July 2000, Assad became president, succeeding his father, who died in office a month prior. In the uncontested 2000 and 2007 elections, he customary 97.29% and 97.6% support, respectively. On 16 July 2014, Assad was sworn in for out of the ordinary seven-year term after unconventional election gave him 88.7% of the vote. The election was held and no-one else in areas controlled by the Syrian management during the country’s ongoing civil combat and was criticised by the UN. Assad was re-elected in 2021 with exceeding 95% of the vote in complementary national election. These elections have been criticized by international observers, as without difficulty as the Syrian opposition, as being fraudulent and non-democratic. Throughout his leadership, human rights groups have characterized Syria’s human rights issue as poor. The Assad direction describes itself as secular, while some political scientists write that his regime exploits sectarian tensions in the country and relies on the Alawite minority to remain in power.
Once seen by many states as a potential reformer, the United States, the European Union, and the majority of the Arab League called for Assad’s renunciation from the direction in 2011 after he ordered a violent crackdown upon Arab Spring protesters, which led to the Syrian Civil War. In December 2013, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay declared that findings from an inquiry by the United Nations implicated Assad in case crimes. The OPCW-UN Joint Investigative Mechanism concluded in October 2017 that Assad’s doling out was responsible for the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack. In June 2014, the American Syrian Accountability Project included Assad on a list of stroke crimes indictments of running officials and rebels it sent to the International Criminal Court. Assad has rejected allegations of accomplishment crimes and criticised the American-led charity in Syria for attempting regime change.