Zimbabwe is an unincorporated country in Southeast Africa. It lies between the Limpopo and Zambezi Rivers. It borders South Africa to its south, Botswana and the south-west, Zambia and Mozambique to its north and Mozambique towards the east. The capital and largest city is Harare. The second largest city is Bulawayo. Zimbabwe is a country with approximately 15 million inhabitants. It has 16 official languages, with English being the most popular and Shona and Ndebele being the least.
The region now known as Zimbabwe has been home to many organized states and kingdoms since the 11th century. It is also a major migration route and trading hub. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during 1890 when they conquered Mashonaland and later in 1893 Matabeleland after a fierce resistance by Matabele people known as the First Matabele War. Company rule ended in 1923 with the establishment of Southern Rhodesia as a self-governing British colony. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. The Commonwealth of Nations was then established in Zimbabwe. In 2002, the Commonwealth of Nations suspended Zimbabwe for violating international law. It then withdrew from Zimbabwe in December 2003. The sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). For its immense prosperity, it was once called the “Jewel of Africa”.
Robert Mugabe was elected Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980. His ZANU-PF party won these elections. He served as President of Zimbabwe from 1987 to 2017. Under Mugabe’s authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Since the 1990s, the country has been experiencing economic decline and several crashes as well as hyperinflation.
After more than a year of protests against the government and Zimbabwe’s rapidly falling economy, Mugabe was put under house arrest in a coup de etat by the national army. He resigned six days later. Emmerson Mnangagwa has since served as Zimbabwe’s president.